Besides the masculine suffix -ec, which was above mentioned by Vidovic-Muha (), the study in addition to relates to the latest Slovenian masculine suffix -ar
The initial the main papers is about new derivation out-of feminine and you will masculine nouns to have specialities within the English and you may Slovenian. The analysis suggests that new principal particular women nouns during the both dialects pertains to derivation thru affixation, if you are English comes with the compounding. Masculinatives is uncommon in both dialects; he or she is mostly designed when it comes to procedures that have been typically considered an element of the feminine industries. Brand new suffix is not productive but can be observed in the word babicar (‘male midwife’). The best difference between both dialects is the fact modern English seems to be leaving the application of gender-noted models (with the exception of the rare feminatives you to are), whereas during the Slovenian, because the confirmed because of the corpus study, the usage of feminatives is rising. The cause of it asymmetry try grounded on the fact that English features an almost low-existent grammatical gender program, and in most cases spends a similar terms to describe a male or female employed in a specific community. For this reason, in the example of feminine referents making use of women nouns became popular, because the means to access masculine simple models is found on new decline.
All of our corpus studies means that the difference ranging from masculine and you can female nouns for disciplines are typically shown by investigating the collocators, semantic choices, and semantic connectivity (Sinclair 1996 and you will Philip 2010).
Slovenian nouns denoting procedures has obvious referents regarding gender, in addition to their modern use – confirmed when you look at the corpora – reveals a clear interest into the arrangement between grammatical and you may biological genders
The fresh collocators from English masculine and you can feminine nouns on checked procedures (actress/actor, policewoman/policeman during the waitress/waiter) indicates that they share particular semantic environment: related procedures; towns and cities and you can land of field; personal names; conditions explaining the quality of the things they’re doing; while the normal tips associated with the field. Specific particular associative meanings are shown whenever we glance at the fresh new collocators detailing individual qualities and look. New feminatives will co-are present that have phrases getting stereotypically women personality traits and you will character (in addition to sexual
connotations). This might be prior to Caldas-Coulthard and you will Moon (2010), just who identify such asymmetries that have stereotypes out-of gender, sexualization of women, and as we grow older and behavior.
Slovenian masculine/feminine pairs for procedures tell you comparable conclusions. Out of semantic taste, we can observe words regarding normal strategies; typical urban centers and landscape; related procedures; characteristics; and appear. The corpus studies along with let you know specific tall variations. This new pairs regarding Slovenian male and you may feminine nouns discussing specialities is split into a couple organizations. The first that comprises pairs that will be semantically comparable and you will stylistically un), as sets regarding next category are susceptible to (a degree of) semantic narrowing and you may stylistic establishing.
A model to the first class ‘s the few zdravnica/zdravnik (‘female/male doctor’), all of that may co-occur that have words writing about the kind of works, normal procedures and you can associated specialities. The female nouns such pairs is actually stylistically unmarked. An equivalent end will likely be hit into pairs sodnica/sodnik (‘female/men judge’) and you will vzgojiteljica/vzgojitelj (‘female/men kindergarten teacher’), however with a beneficial caveat. The type of the two sodnica/sodnik convergence from the sphere of legislation and you will sport; but not, the data in addition to mirror brand new societal reputation of the job – 1st ranking (age.grams., constitutional evaluator) continue to be primarily set aside for men. The pair vzgojiteljica/vzgojitelj can be defined as an effective borderline circumstances between https://gorgeousbrides.net/no/costa-rican-bruder/ marked and you can unmarked meaning. The fresh new corpus study highly recommend a level of semantic narrowing and stylistic marking: the definition out-of «professor into the students dormitory» relates to dudes, once the usage of adjectives (diligent women and you may rigid males) things to gender stereotyping.